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Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In India, there are several calendars in use:

Most holidays in India are based on the first two calendars. A few are based on the solar cycle, Sankranti (solar sidereal) and Baisakhi (solar tropical).

Months and approximate correspndence

Indian months are listed below. Shaka and Chaitradi Vikram (UP, Rajasthan etc.) start with Chaitra, Kartikadi Vikram (Gujarat, Maharashtra) start in Kartika.

Nakshatras are divisions of ecliptic, each 13° 20', starting from 0° Aries. The purnima of each month is synchronized with a nakshatra.

Time cycles in India

The time cycles in India are:
  • 60-year cycle
  • Year
  • 6 seasons of a year
  • about 60 days (2 months) in a season
  • Month (lunar)
  • 2 pakshas in a month, shukla (waxing) and krishna (waning)
  • 15 tithis in a paksha (1-14, 15th is purnima or amavasya)
  • 60 ghatikas (or 30 muhurtas or 8 praharas) in a 24-hour period (ahoratra).
  • 30 Kala(approx) in 1 muhurta
  • 30 Kastha in 1 kala
  • 15 Nimisha in 1 kastha

Years are synchronized with the solar sidereal year by adding a month every four years. The extra month is termed as "adhik-mass" (extra month).This extra month is called mala...
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