In authoritarian countries, creators of artworks may remove material that their government might find controversial for fear of sanction by their governments. In pluralisticcapitalist countries repressive judicial lawmaking can also cause widespread "rivercrabbing" of western media. Self-censorship can also occur, particularly in order to conform to the expectations of the market. For example, the editor of a periodical may consciously or unconsciously avoid topics that will anger advertisers or a parent company in order to protect her or his livelihood. This phenomenon is referred to as soft censorship.