Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests

Sierra Madre Oriental Pine-Oak Forests

Ecoregion Less

Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests

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The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are a subtropical coniferous forest ecoregion of northeastern and Central Mexico, extending into the state of Texas in the United States.


The Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests are found at elevations of above sea level in the Sierra Madre Oriental range, which runs north and south between the Gulf Coastal Plain to the east along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mexican Plateau to the west. The ecoregion covers an area of .

The southernmost forests transition to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests in Puebla state, near the southern end of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The forests extend almost continuously along the range through the states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Nuevo León. North of Monterrey, the forests become discontinuous, extending as a series of sky islands through the states of Nuevo León and Coahuila, and on into the Chisos and Davis mountains of the Big Bend region of western Texas. Other sky islands can be found on the higher peaks of the mountain ranges rising from the Mexican Plateau to the west.


The dominant species are many species of pine including Nelson Pinyon (Pinus nelsonii), Mexican Pinyon (P. cembroides), Smooth-bark Mexican Pine (P. pseudostrobus), and Arizona Pine (P. arizonica), and the oaks Quercus castanea and Q. affinis. On the wetter slopes...
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