Sodium periodate

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Description:
Sodium periodate is the sodium salt of periodic acid. It can refer to two different chemical compounds, sodium metaperiodate (often abbreviated as m-periodate), which has the formula NaIO<sub>4</sub>, and sodium orthoperiodate (often abbreviated as o-periodate), which has the formula Na<sub>2</sub>H<sub>3</sub>IO<sub>6</sub>. Both salts are useful in certain synthetic chemistries for the oxidative power of the periodate ion.

Properties

Density is 3.865&nbsp;g cm<sup>−3</sup>. It is soluble in water. When heated, it decomposes to form sodium iodate (NaIO<sub>3</sub>) and oxygen. This decomposition reaction is catalyzed by the presence of manganese(IV) oxide.

Preparation

Sodium metaperiodate can be isolated from the oxidation of sodium iodide with sodium hypochlorite and is best recrystallized from nitric acid. However, electrochemistry offers an easier alternative.

Uses

Sodium periodate is used to oxidize cellulose and create a biocompatible and biodegradable compound that can be used as suture, as a scaffold for tissue engineering, or for drug delivery.

Sodium periodate can be used in solution to open saccharide rings between vicinal diols leaving two aldehyde groups. This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin. Because the process requires vicinal diols, periodate oxidation is often used to selectively label RNA (ribose has...
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