is the sodium salt
of periodic acid
. It can refer to two different chemical compounds, sodium metaperiodate (often abbreviated as m-periodate), which has the formula NaIO<sub>4</sub>, and sodium orthoperiodate (often abbreviated as o-periodate), which has the formula Na<sub>2</sub>H<sub>3</sub>IO<sub>6</sub>. Both salts are useful in certain synthetic chemistries for the oxidative power of the periodate ion.
Density is 3.865 g cm<sup>−3</sup>. It is soluble in water. When heated, it decomposes to form sodium iodate (NaIO<sub>3</sub>) and oxygen. This decomposition
reaction is catalyzed by the presence of manganese(IV) oxide.
Sodium metaperiodate can be isolated from the oxidation of sodium iodide
with sodium hypochlorite
and is best recrystallized from nitric acid
. However, electrochemistry offers an easier alternative.
Sodium periodate is used to oxidize cellulose
and create a biocompatible
and biodegradable compound
that can be used as suture
, as a scaffold
for tissue engineering
, or for drug delivery
Sodium periodate can be used in solution to open saccharide rings between vicinal diols
leaving two aldehyde groups. This process is often used in labeling saccharides with fluorescent molecules or other tags such as biotin
. Because the process requires vicinal diols, periodate oxidation is often used to selectively label RNA
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