Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

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Description:
Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is a kind of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, characterized by the presence of anisotropic (directionally dependent) interactions.

Introduction

Basic conceptsA spin interacts with a magnetic or an electric field. Spatial proximity and/or a chemical bond between two atoms can give rise to interactions between nuclei. In general, these interactions are orientation dependent. In media with no or little mobility (e.g. crystals, powders, large membrane vesicles, molecular aggregates), anisotropic interactions have a substantial influence on the behaviour of a system of nuclear spins. In contrast, in a classical liquid-state NMR experiment, Brownian motion leads to an averaging of anisotropic interactions. In such cases, these interactions can be neglected on the time-scale of the NMR experiment.

Examples of anisotropic nuclear interactionsTwo directionally dependent interactions commonly found in solid-state NMR are the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and the internuclear dipolar coupling. Many more such interactions exist, such as the anisotropic J-coupling in NMR, or in related fields, such as the g-tensor in electron spin resonance. In mathematical terms, all these interactions can be described using the same formalism.

Experimental background Anisotropic interactions modify the nuclear spin energy levels (and hence the resonance frequency) of all sites in a molecule, and often contribute to a line-broadening effect in NMR...
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