Soluble cell adhesion molecules
s) are a class ofcell adhesion molecule
(CAMs - cell
surface binding proteins
) that may represent important biomarkers
processes involving activation or damage to cells such as platelets
and the endothelium
They include soluble forms of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1
(distinguished as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin). The cellular expression of CAMs is difficult to assess clinically, but these soluble forms are present in the circulation and may serve as markers for CAMs.
Research has focused on their role in cardiovascular
), connective tissue
diseases, where blood plasma
levels may be a marker of the disease severity or prognosis
, and they may be useful in evaluating progress of some treatments.
Many studies have postulated that increased production of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on the vascular endothelium
(blood vessel lining) plays a role in the development of arterial plaque
, with the suggestion from both in vitro
and in vivo
studies that the CAM production is increased by dyslipidemia
levels in the blood).
Research studies have used sCAMs as biomarkers to measure correlations with nutrients