) was a system of legal racial segregation
enforced by the National Party
government of South Africa
between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority 'non-white' inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule
by white people
was maintained. Apartheid was also practised in South West Africa
, under South African administration under a League of Nations
mandate, until Namibian
independence in 1990.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times. However, apartheid as an official policy was introduced following the general election of 1948
. New legislation classified inhabitants into racial groups
("black", "white", "coloured
", and "Asian"),Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel; London, Lesley; du Gruchy, Jeanelle (1999). An ambulance of the wrong colour: health professionals, human rights and ethics in South Africa.
Juta and Company Limited. p. 18 and residential areas were segregated, sometimes by means of forced removals. From 1970, black people
were deprived of their citizenship
, legally becoming citizens of one of ten tribally based self-governing
homelands called bantustans
, four of which became nominally independent states. The government segregated education
, medical care, beaches, and other public services, and provided black people with services inferior to those of white people.
Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance
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