STAT protein

STAT Protein

Protein Family
Protein Family Less

STAT protein

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Description:
The STAT protein (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription, or Signal Transduction And transcription) regulates many aspects of growth, survival and differentiation in cells. The transcription factors of this family are activated by Janus kinase (JAK) and dysregulation of this pathway is frequently observed in primary tumours and leads to increased angiogenesis, enhanced survival of tumours and immunosuppression. Gene knockout studies have provided evidence that STAT proteins are involved in the development and function of the immune system and play a role in maintaining immune tolerance and tumour surveillance.

STAT family

The first two STAT proteins were identified in the interferon system. There are seven mammalian STAT family members which have been identified: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5 (STAT5A and STAT5B), and STAT6.STAT1 homodimers are involved in type II interferon signalling, and bind to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma Activated Sequence) promoter to induce expression of ISG (Interferon Stimulated Genes). In type I interferon signaling, STAT1-STAT2 heterodimer combines with IRF9 (Interferon Response Factor) to form ISGF3 (Interferon Stimulated Gene Factor), which binds to the ISRE (Interferon Stimulated Response Element) promoter to induce ISG expression.

Function

STAT proteins were originally described as latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that require phosphorylation for nuclear retention. The unphosphorylated STAT proteins shuttles between...
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