Steel mill

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Description:
A steel mill or steelworks is an industrial plant for the manufacture of steel.

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. It is produced in a two-stage process. First, iron ore is reduced or smelted with coke and limestone in a blast furnace, producing molten iron which is either cast into pig iron or carried to the next stage as molten iron. In the second stage, known as steelmaking, impurities such as sulfur, phosphorus, and excess carbon are removed and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium are added to produce the exact steel required. In the late 19th Century and early 20th Century the world's largest steel mill was located in Barrow-in-Furness, UK. Today, the world's largest steel mill is in Gwangyang, South Korea.

Steel mills turn molten steel into blooms, ingots, slabs and sheet through casting, hot rolling and cold rolling.

Integrated mill

An integrated steel mill has all the functions for primary steel production:
  • iron making (conversion of ore to liquid iron),
  • steelmaking (conversion of pig iron to liquid steel),
  • casting (solidification of the liquid steel),
  • roughing rolling/billet rolling (reducing size of blocks)
  • product rolling (finished shapes).


The principal raw materials for an integrated mill are iron ore, limestone, and coal (or coke). These materials are charged in batches into a blast furnace where the iron compounds in the ore give up excess...
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