Substrate-level phosphorylation

Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

Substrate-level phosphorylation

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Substrate-level phosphorylation is a type of metabolic minus the phosphorylation of the G6Pchemical reaction that results in the formation and creation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphoryl (PO<sub>3</sub>) group to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or guanosine diphosphate (GDP) from a phosphorylated reactive intermediate. By convention, however, the phosphoryl group that is transferred is referred to as a phosphate group.

An alternative way to create ATP is through oxidative phosphorylation, which takes place during the process of cellular respiration, in addition to the substrate-level phosphorylation that occurs during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. During oxidative phosphorylation, NADH is oxidized to NAD<sup>+</sup>, yielding 2.5 ATPs, and FADH<sub>2</sub> yields 1.5 ATPs when it is oxidized. Oxidative phosphorylation uses electrochemical or chemiosmotic gradient of protons (H<sup>+</sup>) across the inner mitochondrial membrane to generate ATP from ADP, which is a key difference from substrate-level phosphorylation.

Unlike oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation and phosphorylation are not joined in the process of Substrate-level phosphorylation, although both types of phosphorylation result in ATP and reactive intermediates are most often gained in course of oxidation processes in catabolism.However, usually most of the ATP is generated by oxidative...
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