The Supreme Court of Arbitration of the Russian Federation is the court of final instance in commercial disputes in Russia. Additionally, it supervises the work of lower courts of arbitration and gives interpretation of laws and elucidations concerning their implementations, which are compulsory for lower courts.
Commercial arbitrations in Russia existed even before the October revolution, though their powers were very limited and immediately after the revolution they were abolished. In 1922 Supreme Arbitration Commission attached to the Council of Labour and Defense and oblast' arbitration commissions were created. Their function was to solve disputes between state-owned institutions (including profit-making companies). In 1931 all those commissions were abolished. The newly created State Arbitration of the USSR was to resolve disputes arising out of contracts exchanged between enterprises subordinate to different governmental agencies. The disputes arising within one agency's jurisdiction were not brought to the State Arbitration. Whenever the State Arbitration discovered any violations of law its duty was to report about it to respective law enforcement offices. Similar state arbitrations were created in republics of the USSR.