Tarana is located at . It has an average elevation of 490 metres (1607 feet).
India census, Tarana had a population of 21,455. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Tarana has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76%, and female literacy is 56%. In Tarana, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Tarana experiences typical climate conditions of the interior Indian subcontinent. The summer months (April–June) are harsh with temperatures reaching up to 45°C. In addition, hot winds (called loo) may blow in the afternoons, worsening the heat. The winter months (Nov.–Feb.) are pleasant and cool with daytime temperatures typically 20°C. The monsoon typically arrives in late June and the months of June till September receive moderate to heavy rainfall. There are periods of rainfall followed by long periods of bright sunshine and high humidity. The month of October generally is very warm and with high humidity.