Tauopathy

Tauopathy

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Tauopathy

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Description:
Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases resulting from the pathological aggregation of tau protein in the human brain.

The best known of these illnesses is Alzheimer's disease (AD), where tau protein is deposited within neurons in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). They were first described by the eponymous Alois Alzheimer in one of his patients suffering from the disorder. Tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate in an insoluble form. (These aggregations of hyperphosphorylated tau protein are also referred to as PHF, or "paired helical filaments"). The precise mechanism of tangle formation is not completely understood, and it is still controversial whether tangles are a primary causative factor in the disease or play a more peripheral role. AD is also classified as an amyloidosis because of the presence of senile plaques.

The degree of NFT involvement in AD is defined by Braak stages. Braak stages I and II are used when NFT involvement is confined mainly to the transentorhinal region of the brain, stages III and IV when there's also involvement of limbic regions such as the hippocampus, and V and VI when there's extensive neocortical involvement. This should not be confused with the degree of senile plaque involvement, which progresses...
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