is the name of a science and technology studies theory
describing technology development
, developed by Czech philosopher Radovan Richta
Theory of technological evolution
According to Richta and later Bloomfield,Bloomfield, Masse. Mankind In Transition; A View of the Distant Past, the Present and the Far Future
, Masefield Books, 1993.Bloomfield, Masse.
, Masefield Books, 1995. technology
(which Richta defines as "a material entity created by the application of mental and physical effort to nature in order to achieve some value") evolves in three stages: tools, machine, automation. This evolution, he says, follows two trends: the replacement of physical labour with more efficient mental
labour, and the resulting greater degree of control over one's natural environment
, including an ability to transform raw materials into ever more complex and pliable products.
Stages of technological development
The pretechnological period, in which all other animal species remain today aside from some avian and primate species was a non-rational period of the early prehistoric man
The emergence of technology, made possible by the development of the rational faculty, paved the way for the first stage: the tool. A tool provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, and must be powered by human or animal effort.
Hunter-gatherers developed tools mainly for procuring food. Tools such as a... Read More