The state of Texas
declared its secession
from the United States on February 1, 1861, and joined the Confederate States of America
on March 2, 1861, replacing its governor, Sam Houston
, when he refused to take an oath of allegiance
to the Confederacy. During the subsequent American Civil War
, Texas was most useful for supplying soldiers for Confederate forces
and in the cavalry
. Texas was mainly a "supply state" for the Confederate forces until mid-1863, when the Union capture of the Mississippi River
made large movements of men, horses or cattle impossible. Some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Federal naval blockade of Galveston
and other ports.
In the late winter of 1861, Texas counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession. The convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession
by a vote of 166 to 8, which was ratified by a popular referendum on February 23.
Separately from the Ordinance of Secession, Texas also issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for secession. The document specifies several reasons for secession, including its solidarity with its "sister slave-holding States," the Federal government's inability to prevent Indian attacks, slave-stealing... Read More