In materials science
is the distribution of crystallographic orientations of a polycrystalline
sample. A sample in which these orientations are fully random is said to have no texture. If the crystallographic orientations are not random, but have some preferred orientation, then the sample has a weak, moderate or strong texture. The degree is dependent on the percentage of crystals having the preferred orientation. Texture is seen in almost all engineered materials, and can have a great influence on material properties. Also, geologic
rocks show texture due to their thermo-mechanic history of formation processes.
One extreme case is a complete lack of texture: a solid with perfectly random crystallite orientation will have isotropic
properties at length scales sufficiently larger than the size of the crystallites. The opposite extreme is a perfect single crystal, which has anisotropic
properties by geometric necessity.
Characterization and representation
Texture can be determined by various methods. Some of them allow a quantitative analysis of the texture; others are only qualitative. Among the quantitative techniques, the most widely used is X-ray diffraction
using texture goniometers, followed by EBSD
-method (electron backscatter diffraction
) in Scanning Electron Microscopes
. Qualitative analysis can be done by Laue
photography, simple X-ray diffraction or with the polarized microscope. Neutron
and synchrotron high-energy......