TGF beta signaling pathway

TGF Beta Signaling Pathway

TGF beta signaling pathway

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The Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor then phosphorylates receptor-regulated SMADs (R-SMADs) which can now bind the coSMAD SMAD4. R-SMAD/coSMAD complexes accumulate in the nucleus where they act as transcription factors and participate in the regulation of target gene expression.


Ligand Binding

The TGF Beta superfamily of ligands include: Bone morphogenetic proteins , Growth and differentiation factors , Anti-müllerian hormone , Activin, Nodal and TGFβ's. Signaling begins with the binding of a TGF beta superfamily ligand to a TGF beta type II receptor. The type II receptor is a serine/threonine receptor kinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of the Type I receptor. Each class of ligand binds to a specific type II receptor.

There are three activins: Activin A,......
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