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Thiazide is a term used to describe a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart, liver, or kidney disease).

The thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics reduce the risk of death, stroke, heart attack and heart failure due to hypertension. In most countries, the thiazides are the cheapest antihypertensive drugs available.

Mechanism of action

The members of this class of diuretics are derived from benzothiadiazine. They work by inhibiting reabsorption of sodium (Na<sup>+</sup>) and chloride (Cl<sup>−</sup>) ions from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys by blocking the thiazide-sensitive Na<sup>+</sup>-Cl<sup>−</sup> symporter. Thiazides also cause loss of potassium and an increase in serum uric acid. The term "thiazide" is also often used for drugs with a similar action that do not have the thiazide chemical structure, such as chlortalidone and metolazone. These agents are more properly termed thiazide-like diuretics.


That thiazide refers to both the type of molecule and the medication can sometimes lead to confusion, because some molecules (thiazide-like diuretics) are often considered as thiazide diuretics, although they are not thiazides from a chemical perspective. In this context,...
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