Third Army (Ottoman Empire)

Third Army (Ottoman Empire)

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Third Army (Ottoman Empire)

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The Ottoman Third Army was originally established in the Balkans and later defended the northern and eastern parts of the Ottoman Empire. Its initial headquarters was at Salonica. With the onset of World War I, it moved to Erzurum Fortress. The headquarters was moved to Susehir (town near Sivas) after the Battle of Erzurum. While it was in the Balkans, it formed the core of the military forces that supported the Young Turk Revolution of 1908. Many of its officers, including Enver Pasha and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, rose to fame and power.

During the First World War, it fought against the Russian Caucasus Army, Armenian volunteer units and behind the lines deal with the Armenian Resistance at his responsibility area. During this period, the Battle of Sarikamish, in which it suffered a crushing defeat, Battle of Koprukoy and the Battle of Erzurum were significant engagements. By late 1916 it was no longer an offensive power. After the Russian Revolution, the Russian Caucasus Army disintegrated. Between 1917 and 1918 it advanced against Armenian national forces of Armenian national liberation movement established by Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians which became the Armenian Army with the deceleration of Democratic Republic of Armenia. During this period, it engaged to the Armenian Army at Sardarapat, Abaran, and Karakilisa.


Order of Battle, 1908

After the Young Turk Revolution and the establishment of the Second Constitutional Era on July 3,...
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