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TMK () was the designation of a Soviet Union space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars and Venus (TMK-MAVR design) without landing.

The TMK-1 spacecraft was due to be launched in 1971 and make a three year long flight including a Mars fly-by at which time probes would have been dropped. Expanded project variations, such as the TMK-E, Mavr or KK, including a Venus flyby, electric propulsion or a manned Mars landing were also proposed.

The TMK project was planned as an answer from the Soviet Union to the United States manned moon landings. A previous Martian Piloted Complex mission was proposed in 1956. The project was never completed because the required N1 rocket never flew successfully.


The first flight to Mars of the TMK-1 was planned to begin on June 8, 1971.

The 75 metric ton TMK-1 spacecraft would take a crew of three on a Mars flyby mission. After a 10.5 month flight the crew would race past Mars, dropping remote controlled landers, and then be flung into an earth-return trajectory. Earth return would happen on July 10, 1974, after a voyage of three years, one month, and two days.

Spacecraft configuration:
  • A habitation or pilot compartment, with an internal volume of 25 cubic meters
  • A work or equipment section, including the hatch for extra-vehicular activities and a solar storm shelter should solar flares increase radiation to dangerous levels. Total volume of the section 25 cubic meters
  • A biological systems compartment, with the SOZh closed-cycle......
  • ...

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