() was the designation of a Soviet Union
space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars
(TMK-MAVR design) without landing.
The TMK-1 spacecraft
was due to be launched in 1971 and make a three year long flight including a Mars fly-by at which time probes would have been dropped. Expanded project variations, such as the TMK-E, Mavr or KK, including a Venus flyby, electric propulsion or a manned Mars landing were also proposed.
The TMK project was planned as an answer from the Soviet Union to the United States
landings. A previous Martian Piloted Complex
mission was proposed in 1956. The project was never completed because the required N1 rocket
never flew successfully.
The first flight to Mars of the TMK-1 was planned to begin on June 8, 1971.
The 75 metric ton TMK-1 spacecraft would take a crew of three on a Mars flyby mission. After a 10.5 month flight the crew would race past Mars, dropping remote controlled landers, and then be flung into an earth-return trajectory. Earth return would happen on July 10, 1974, after a voyage of three years, one month, and two days.
- A habitation or pilot compartment, with an internal volume of 25 cubic meters
- A work or equipment section, including the hatch for extra-vehicular activities and a solar storm shelter should solar flares increase radiation to dangerous levels. Total volume of the section 25 cubic meters
- A biological systems compartment, with the SOZh closed-cycle......