Treaty of London (1867)

Treaty Of London (1867)

Treaty of London (1867)

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The Treaty of London (), often called the Second Treaty of London after the 1839 Treaty, was an international treaty signed on 11 May 1867. Agreed in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War and the Luxembourg Crisis, it had wide-reaching consequences for Luxembourg and for relations between Europe's Great Powers.

Effects

The immediate effect of the treaty, established in Article I, was the reaffirmation of the personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg under the House of Orange-Nassau. The Luxembourg Crisis had erupted after French Emperor Napoleon III attempted to buy Luxembourg from the Dutch King William III. Consequently, maintaining Dutch ownership of Luxembourg, free from French interference, was of paramount importance to Prussia.

The neutrality of Luxembourg, established by the First Treaty of London, was also reaffirmed. Those parties that did not sign the earlier treaty were to become guarantors of Luxembourg's neutrality (an exception was Belgium, which was, itself, bound to neutrality).

To ensure Luxembourg's neutrality, the fortifications of Luxembourg City, known as the 'Gibraltar of the North' , were to be demolished and never to be rebuilt. Dismantling the fortifications took sixteen years, cost 1.5 million gold francs, and required the destruction of over 24 km (15 miles) of underground...
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