Turkish National Movement

Turkish National Movement

Turkish National Movement

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The Turkish National Movement encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries which resulted in the creation and shaping of the Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I.

In the aftermath, Turkish revolutionaries rebelled against the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, which ended the Empire's participation in World War I; they also rebelled against the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920, similarly signed by the Ottoman government, and partitioned portions of Anatolia itself.


After the establishment of the Turkish national movement and the successful Turkish War of Independence, the revolutionaries abolished the Ottoman Sultanate on November 1, 1922, and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The movement terminated the Treaty of Sèvres and negotiated the Treaty of Lausanne, assuring recognition of the national borders, termed Misak-ı Milli (National Pact).

The national forces were united around the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha and the authority of the Turkish Grand National Assembly set up in Ankara, which pursued the Turkish War of Independence. The movement gathered around a progressively defined political ideology that is generally termed "Kemalism", or "Atatürkism". Its basic principles stress the Republic - a form of government representing the power of the electorate, secular...
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