The northern and southern parts of the rim of Vasco da Gama have been heavily eroded by impacts, with the western and eastern rims being more intact. The smaller crater Vasco da Gama S intrudes into the southeastern rim, and just to its southwest is Vasco da Gama T. Near the northeastern rim is Vasco da Gama B.
The interior floor of this crater contains a system of rilles designated the Rimae Vasco da Gama. These primarily lie in the western two-thirds of the floor, and run roughly north-south, sometimes bending near their ends. There is a low central ridge near the mid-point of the interior.
By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater mid-point that is closest to Vasco da Gama.