In Vietnamese, đại từ xưng hô
"personal substitutes". can act as substitutions for noun phrase
. While true pronouns exist in Vietnamese, most are rarely used in polite speech. In most cases, kinship terminology
is used when referring to oneself, the audience, or a third party. These terms might differ slightly in different regions. Many of them are derived from Chinese loanwords, but have acquired the additional grammatical function of being pronouns over the years.
Vietnamese terms of reference can reveal the social relationship between the speaker and the person being referred to, differences in age, and even the attitude of the speaker toward that person. Thus a speaker must carefully assess these factors to decide the appropriate term. It's not unusual for strangers to ask each other about age when they first meet, in order to establish the proper terms of address to use.
True pronouns are categorized into two classes depending on whether they can be preceded by the plural marker chúng
. Like other Asian pronominal systems, Vietnamese pronouns indicate the social status between speakers and other persons in the discourse in addition to grammatical person
The table below shows the first class of pronouns that can be preceded by pluralizer.
The first person tôi
is the only pronoun that can be used in polite speech. The second person ta
is often used when talking to oneself as in a... Read More