Water resources in Mexico

Water Resources In Mexico

Water resources in Mexico

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Water resources in many parts of Mexico are under stress, especially in the arid northwest and central regions where most of the population lives and most of the economic activities are located. The country has put in place a system of water resources management that includes both central (federal) and decentralized (basin and local) institutions.

Despite many achievements, the water resources sector in Mexico still faces some challenges, including: (i) increasing water scarcity, (ii) over-exploitation of freshwater resources, especially groundwater, (ii) deteriorating water quality, (iii) lack of financial sustainability of the water sector, (iv) modernizing water supply and sanitation services, (v) improve competitiveness and efficiency of irrigation, (vi) strengthen water institutions, (vii) adapt to climate change impacts, especially droughts and floods.

History and recent developments

Mexico has a long and well established tradition on water resources management (WRM) which started in the 1930s when the country began investing heavily in water storage facilities and groundwater development to expand irrigation and supply water to the rapidly expanding population.

The 1934 Código Agrario, promulgated during the Cárdenas administration (1934-1940), granted the federal government sweeping powers to define the “public interest” to which water could be harnessed. By virtue of such legislation, between the 1930s and 1970s, the ejido sector and rural communities were...
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