X-linked hypophosphatemia

X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

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X-linked hypophosphatemia

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X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), also called X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked vitamin d-resistant rickets or hypophosphatemic vitamin d-resistant rickets (HPDR), is an X-linked dominant form of rickets (or osteomalacia) that differs from most cases of rickets in that ingestion of vitamin D is relatively ineffective. It can cause bone deformity including short stature and genu varum (bow leggedness). It is associated with a mutation in the PHEX gene sequence (Xp.22) and subsequent inactivity of the PHEX protein. The leg deformity can be treated with Ilizarov frames and CHAOS surgery.

Cause and Genetics

XLH is associated with a mutation in the PHEX gene sequence, located on the human X chromosome at location Xp22.2-p22.1. The mutation results in altered (or missing) activity of the PHEX protein, which inactivates hormone-like substances (phosphatonins) that promote phosphate excretion. The resulting excess excretion of phosphate impairs bone mineralization. Biochemically, XLH is recognized by hypophosphatemia and inappropriately low level of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)<sub>2</sub> vitamin D<sub>3</sub>).

The disorder is inherited in an X-linked dominant manner. This means the defective gene...
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