Archery at the 1984 Summer Olympics was contested in the same format used since 1972. There were two events: men's individual and women's individual. Points were in a format called the double FITA round, which included 288 arrows shot over four days at four different distances: 70 meters, 60 meters, 50 meters, 30 meters for women; 90 meters, 70 meters, 50 meters, 30 meters for men. It was the fourth, and last, time that the format was used in Olympic competition.
Neroli Fairhall from New Zealand, who came 35th in the Women's individual event, was the first paraplegic athlete to compete at the Olympic Games.
Seven of the top eight archers were from nations that had been absent from the 1980 Summer Olympics.