The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra
: התזמורת הפילהרמונית הישראלית, ha-Tizmoret ha-Filharmonit ha-Yisre'elit
) is the leading symphony orchestra
. It was originally known as the Palestine Orchestra, and in Hebrew as התזמורת הסימפונית הארץ ישראלית (ha-Tizmoret ha-Simfonit ha-Eretz-Yisre'elit
, i.e. Symphony Orchestra of Eretz Israel).
The IPO was founded by violinist Bronisław Huberman
in 1936, at a time when many Jewish
musicians were being fired from European orchestras. Its inaugural concert took place in Tel Aviv
on December 26, 1936, and was conducted by Arturo Toscanini
, the IPO was awarded the Israel Prize
, in music, being the first year in which the Prize was awarded to an organization.
The IPO enjoys frequent international tours, and has hosted some of the world's greatest conductors
. Particularly associated with the orchestra are conductors Leonard Bernstein
and Zubin Mehta
. Bernstein maintained close ties with the orchestra from 1947
, and in 1988, the IPO bestowed on him the title of Laureate Conductor, which he retained until his death in 1990. Mehta has served as the IPO's Music Advisor since 1968. The IPO did not have a formal music director, but instead "music advisors", until 1977, when Mehta was appointed the IPO's first Music Director. In 1981, his title was elevated to Music Director for Life. Kurt......