Talukdar was part of the Indian team that won the silver medal at the 2004 Junior World Championships. He followed up with a gold medal at the FITA Meteksan World Cup in 2006, becoming the first Indian archer to win gold at the event. In 2006 he also won a gold medal at the South Asian Games and a bronze medal in the team competition at the 2006 Asian Games.
Despite losses in 2009, the Tata Steel sponsored Talukdar was seeded Number 1 for the 2009 World Cup in Copenhagen.
Jayanta was awarded the Arjuna Award in archery in August, 2007.