is the revival and development of medieval scholastic philosophy
starting from the second half of the 19th century. It has some times been called neo-Thomism
partly because Thomas Aquinas
in the 13th century gave to scholasticism a final form, partly because the idea gained ground that only Thomism
could infuse vitality into 12th century scholasticism.
Neo-Scholasticism seeks to restore the fundamental doctrines embodied in the scholasticism of the 13th century. The essential conceptions may be summarized as follows:
, pure actuality and absolute perfection, is substantially distinct from every finite thing: He alone can create and preserve all beings other than Himself. His infinite knowledge includes all that has been, is, or shall be, and likewise all that is possible.
2. As to our knowledge of the material world: whatever exists is itself, an incommunicable, individual substance. To the core of self-sustaining reality, in the oak
-tree for instance, other realities (accidents) are added—size, form, roughness, and so on. All oak-trees are alike, indeed are identical in respect of certain constituent elements. Considering this likeness and even identity, our human intelligence groups them into one species and again, in view of their common characteristics, it ranges various species under one genus. Such is the Aristotelean solution of the problem of universals
. Each substance is in its nature fixed and determined; and nothing... Read More