(Old Polish: ięzyk Polſki
, modern Polish
: język staropolski
) is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Polish language
between 9th and 16th centuries.
The Polish language started to change after the Baptism of Poland
– bringing in words from Latin
, such as kościół
("church", from L. castellum
, meaning "castle"), often via the Czech language
, which also influenced Polish in that era (hence Lechitic
"wiesiełyj" yielded modern Polish
"wesoły" and "wesele"). Also, in later centuries, with the onset of cities founded on German law namely so-called Magdeburg law
, Middle High German
urban and legal words filtered into Old Polish. Around the 14th or 15th centuries the aorist
became obsolete. In the 15th century the dual
fell into disuse except a few fixed expressions (adages, sayings).
About 1440 Cracow Academy
professor and rector Jakub Parkoszowic
tried to codify the Polish alphabet
. He wrote the first tract on Polish orthographic
rules (in Latin
) and rhyme Obiecado
(in Polish). Parkoszowic wanted to differentiate:
- long and short vowels by doubling long ones,
- palatal and non-palatal consonants with letters of different shapes (round and edged).
His idea wasn't popular and did not become obligatory.
In 16th century Jan Kochanowski
proposed a set of orthographic rules and an alphabet of... Read More