are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum
) as it is processed in oil refineries
According to crude oil composition and demand, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as energy
carriers: various grades of fuel oil
. These energy-carrying fuels
include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel
, diesel fuel
, heating oil
, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile
) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt
, paraffin wax
and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals
, some of which are used in chemical processes
to produce plastics
and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a couple of percent sulfur
, sulfur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Hydrogen
in the form of petroleum coke
may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrogen catalytic cracking (hydrocracking
) and hydrodesulfurization
Major products of oil refineries
Specialty end products
Oil refineries will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars.
- Gaseous fuels such as propane, stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors.
- Liquid fuels blending (producing......