The Second Sudanese Civil War
started in 1983, although it was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War
of 1955 to 1972. Although it originated in southern Sudan
, the civil war spread to the Nuba mountains
and Blue Nile
by the end of the 1980s.
Roughly two million people have died as a result of war, famine and disease caused by the conflict. Four million people in southern Sudan
have been displaced
at least once (and often repeatedly) during the war. The civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II
., U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive
. Accessed 10 April 2007. The conflict officially ended with the signing of a peace agreement
in January 2005.
Background and causes
The war is often characterized as a fight between the central government expanding and dominating peoples of the periphery, raising allegations of marginalization
. Kingdoms and great powers based along the Nile River
have fought against the people of inland Sudan for centuries. Since at least the 17th century, central governments have attempted to regulate and exploit the undeveloped southern and inland Sudan.
Some paint the conflict as racial (Arabs
) Others also paint the conflict as religious (Muslims
). In reality, the conflict is far more complicated. Scholars such as Douglas Johnson have pointed at exploitative governance as the root... Read More